Meine Meinung Jill <3. Ich wollte schon immer wissen wer das Telefon erfunden hatte und wie man es erfunden hatte. Mir hat dieses Thema sehr gut gefallen. Auch war dieses erste Telefon war nicht sonderlich gebrauchsfähig. meldet Alexander Graham Bell sein Telefon zum Patent an und verbesserte es immer. alexander graham bell steckbrief.
Die Erfindung des TelefonsAlexander G. Bell und das Telefon des Antonio Meucci[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Siehe auch: Erfindung. Vor Jahren gelang Graham Bell eine bahnbrechende Erfindung: Er entdeckte, wie man Schallwellen in elektrische Schwingungen. Die historisch nachhaltigste Wirkung hatte.
Alexander Graham Bell Erfindungen Philipp Reis: "Ich habe der Welt eine große Erfindung geschenkt" VideoFive Alexander Graham Bell Inventions You Didn't Know About
Young Alexander was an intellectually curious child who studied piano and began inventing things at an early age. Both of his brothers passed away from tuberculosis by the time Bell was in his early twenties.
When he was just 12, the young Alexander invented a device with rotating paddles and nail brushes that could quickly remove husks from wheat grain to help improve a farming process.
At age 16, Bell began studying the mechanics of speech. In , Bell, along with his family, moved to Canada.
The following year, he settled in the United States. While in the U. In , he opened the School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech in Boston, where deaf people were taught to speak.
While teaching, Bell met Mabel Hubbard, a deaf student. The couple married on July 11, They went on to have four children, including two sons who died as infants.
In , Bell started working on the harmonic telegraph — a device that allowed multiple messages to be transmitted over a wire at the same time.
While trying to perfect this technology, which was backed by a group of investors, Bell became preoccupied with finding a way to transmit human voice over wires.
By , Bell, with the help of his partner Thomas Watson, had come up with a simple receiver that could turn electricity into sound.
On March 7, , Bell was granted his telephone patent. Er stellte seinen Sohn als Assistenten ein. Vater und Sohn untersuchten hier die Probleme der Sprache und beschäftigten sich mit tauben Kindern.
Im Jahre wanderte er mit seinen Eltern nach Nordamerika aus. Hier beschäftigte er sich ab auch mit akustischen Experimenten zur Aufzeichnung von Schallwellen.
He was able to demonstrate that the photophone was technologically feasible , but it did not develop into a commercially viable product.
Nevertheless, it contributed to research into the photovoltaic effect that had practical applications later in the 20th century. The origin of this effort was the shooting of U.
President James A. Garfield in July Bell decided that a promising approach was to use an induction balance, a by-product of his research on canceling out electrical interference on telephone wires.
Bell determined that a properly configured induction balance would emit a tone when a metal object was brought into proximity with it.
Surgeons adopted it, and it was credited with saving lives during the Boer War — and World War I — In September the Bell family vacationed in Nova Scotia, Canada, and immediately fell in love with the climate and landscape.
During the s Bell shifted his attention to heavier-than-air flight. Starting in , inspired by the research of American scientist Samuel Pierpont Langley , he experimented with wing shapes and propeller blade designs.
He continued his experiments even after Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first successful powered, controlled flight in In Bell founded the Aerial Experiment Association , which made significant progress in aircraft design and control and contributed to the career of pioneer aviator Glenn Hammond Curtiss.
Throughout his life, Bell sought to foster the advance of scientific knowledge. He supported the journal Science , which later became the official publication of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
He was one of the founders of the National Geographic Society in and succeeded his father-in-law, Gardiner Hubbard, as president of the society between and In that year his son-in-law, Gilbert H.
Grosvenor , became editor in chief of the National Geographic Magazine. Bell died at his Nova Scotia estate, where he was buried. Print Cite. Facebook Twitter.
Give Feedback External Websites. Das Photophon Es war ein ebenfalls von Alexander erfundenes Gerät, dessen Ziel es war, den Klang, hauptsächlich die Stimme, durch Lichtstrahlen zu übertragen.
Das Tragflächenboot Es ist eine Art von Flugzeug, das einen oder mehrere Schwimmer hat, um auf Wasser schwimmen und sich bewegen zu können.
Neue Flugzeugmodelle Alexander experimentierte mehrfach, um Flugzeuge zu bauen, die schwerer als Luft waren und geschaffen wurden Silberpfeil ein Flugzeug, das zum Zeitpunkt deines Fluges erfolgreich war.
Von: gobiernodecanarias. Von: hrnabranford. Wiederhergestellt von: britannica. He told Bell that his claim for the variable resistance feature was also described in Gray's caveat.
Bell pointed to a variable resistance device in his previous application in which he described a cup of mercury, not water. He had filed the mercury application at the patent office a year earlier on February 25, , long before Elisha Gray described the water device.
In addition, Gray abandoned his caveat, and because he did not contest Bell's priority, the examiner approved Bell's patent on March 3, Gray had reinvented the variable resistance telephone, but Bell was the first to write down the idea and the first to test it in a telephone.
The patent examiner , Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in an affidavit that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey , with whom he had served in the Civil War.
He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. Wilber also claimed after Bell arrived in Washington D. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.
Bell denied in an affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money. On March 10, Bell used "the instrument" in Boston to call Thomas Watson who was in another room but out of earshot.
He said, "Mr. Watson, come here — I want to see you" and Watson soon appeared at his side. Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone.
On August 3, , from the telegraph office in Brantford, Ontario, Bell sent a tentative telegram to the village of Mount Pleasant four miles six kilometres distant, indicating that he was ready.
He made a telephone call via telegraph wires and faint voices were heard replying. The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family with a call between the Bell Homestead and the office of the Dominion Telegraph Company in Brantford along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.
This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. The third test on August 10, , was made via the telegraph line between Brantford and Paris, Ontario, eight miles thirteen kilometres distant.
This test was said by many sources to be the "world's first long-distance call". The first two-way reciprocal conversation over a line occurred between Cambridge and Boston roughly 2.
The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy. By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.
Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.
A short time later, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia brought the telephone to international attention.
One of the judges at the Exhibition, Sir William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin , a renowned Scottish scientist, described the telephone as "the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph".
These were the first publicly witnessed long-distance telephone calls in the UK. The queen considered the process to be "quite extraordinary" although the sound was "rather faint".
The Bell Telephone Company was created in , and by , more than , people in the U. Bell Company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever.
In , the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union. This made the telephone practical for longer distances, and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.
In January , Bell made the first ceremonial transcontinental telephone call. The New York Times reported:. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston.
It was the first wire conversation ever held. Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, ], the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,mile wire between New York and San Francisco.
Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent. As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.
Supreme Court ,  but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent   and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.
In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims.
On January 13, , the U. Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation. After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.
With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest on both sides arising from the original trial, the US Attorney General dropped the lawsuit on November 30, , leaving several issues undecided on the merits.
During a deposition filed for the trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in In , in the first of three cases in which he was involved, [N 16] Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hope of establishing his invention's priority.
Meucci's testimony in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions, as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph ADT of New York, which was later incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union in House of Representatives on June 11, , stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged".
The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties. The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.
His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1, of his 1, shares in the newly formed Bell Telephone Company.
During that excursion, Bell took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday". The courtship had begun years earlier; however, Bell waited until he was more financially secure before marrying.
Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after From , he would sign his name "Alec Bell".
The Bell family home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts, until when Bell's father-in-law bought a house in Washington, D.
Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.
In , he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries. By , a new summer retreat was contemplated.
He was an enthusiastic boater, and Bell and his family sailed or rowed a long series of vessels on Bras d'Or Lake , ordering additional vessels from the H.
In his final, and some of his most productive years, Bell split his residency between Washington, D. Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that his annual stays lengthened.
Both Mabel and Bell became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own". Mabel and Bell mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.
Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied.
These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone , one for the phonograph , five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes", and two for selenium cells.
Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.
Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound.
Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they could not develop a workable prototype.
They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder , the hard disc and floppy disc drive, and other magnetic media.
Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice. He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution.
Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere.
In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses.
Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter jointly invented a wireless telephone, named a photophone , which allowed for the transmission of both sounds and normal human conversations on a beam of light.
On June 21, , Bell's assistant transmitted a wireless voice telephone message a considerable distance, from the roof of the Franklin School in Washington, D.
Bell believed the photophone's principles were his life's "greatest achievement", telling a reporter shortly before his death that the photophone was "the greatest invention [I have] ever made, greater than the telephone".
Bell is also credited with developing one of the early versions of a metal detector through the use of an induction balance, after the shooting of U.
President James A. Garfield in According to some accounts, the metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find Guiteau 's bullet, partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.
Bell's own detailed account, presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in , differs in several particulars from most of the many and varied versions now in circulation, by concluding that extraneous metal was not to blame for failure to locate the bullet.
Perplexed by the peculiar results he had obtained during an examination of Garfield, Bell "proceeded to the Executive Mansion the next morning It was then recollected that underneath the horse-hair mattress on which the President lay was another mattress composed of steel wires.
Upon obtaining a duplicate, the mattress was found to consist of a sort of net of woven steel wires, with large meshes. The extent of the [area that produced a response from the detector] having been so small, as compared with the area of the bed, it seemed reasonable to conclude that the steel mattress had produced no detrimental effect.
Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes. Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement.
Based on information gained from that article, he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. Bell and assistant Frederick W.
Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models. This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.
During his world tour of —11, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore.
Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag Scottish Gaelic for little devil , the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.
Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD Bell's report to the U.
Navy permitted him to obtain two horsepower kilowatts engines in July On September 9, , the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of In , Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft.
The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek "young" help as Bell was at the age of In , Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.
Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association AEA , officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October at the suggestion of his wife Mabel and with her financial support after the sale of some of her real estate.
Curtiss , a motorcycle manufacturer at the time and who held the title "world's fastest man", having ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, and who was later awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere , and who later became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge , an official observer from the U.
Federal government and one of the few people in the army who believed that aviation was the future; Frederick W.
The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing , framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.
One of the AEA's inventions, a practical wingtip form of the aileron , was to become a standard component on all aircraft. Bell allowed it to continue with experiments.